Orch OR


Stuart Hameroff

Stuart Hameroff’s research pursued microtubule information processing and anesthetic action. In the mid-1990s he teamed with eminent British physicist and Nobel Laureate Sir Roger Penrose to develop a controversial quantum theory of consciousness (‘orchestrated objective reduction’, ‘Orch OR’) based on microtubule quantum computing. Harshly criticized initially, Orch OR is now supported by experimental results including anesthetic action. In 2017, with Sir Roger Penrose, James Tagg, Ivette Fuentes and Erik Viierre, Hameroff co-founded the Penrose Institute, intended to support research based on the various works of Sir Roger (cosmology, quantum mechanics, general relativity, black holes, geometry and consciousness).

Roger Penrose

Roger Penrose Oxford University, Mathematics Dept. Born, 8 August 1931, Colchester Essex UK; 1st cass mathematics degree at University College London; PhD at Cambridge UK: assistant lecturer, Bedford College London: Research Fellow St John's College, Cambridge (now Honorary Fellow) post-doc at King's College London; Cambridge; NATO Fellow at Princeton, Syracuse, and Cornell Universities, USA; 1-year appointment at University of Texas; Reader then full Professor at Birkbeck College;, London; Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics, Oxford University (during which, several 1/2-year periods as Mathematics Professor at Rice University, Houston, Texas)now Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor; Fellow, Wadham College, Oxford (now Emeritus Fellow). Many awards and honorary degrees, including knighthood, Fellow of Royal Society and of US National Academy of Sciences, De Morgan Medal of London Mathematical Society, Copley Medal of the Royal Society, Wolf Prize (shared with Stephen Hawking), Pomeranchuk Prize (Mosow). Designed many non-periodic tiling patterns including large paving at entrance of Andrew Wiles Mathematics Building, Oxford and Transbay Center, San Francisco
October 6, 2020 - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020 with one half to Roger Penrose for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity and the other half jointly to Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy.  Roger Penrose's affiliation at the time of the Nobel award: University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom -  The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Physics, 2020 - Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020   View | Download 2.64 MB 


Hameroff, Stuart, ‘Orch OR’ is the most complete, and most easily falsifiable theory of consciousness,  (2020) Cognitive Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1080/17588928.2020.1839037 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/17588928.2020.1839037 - Published online: 24 Nov 2020.  

Kalra, Aarat P, Stuart Hameroff, Jack Tuszynski, and Aristide Dogariu. 2020. “Anesthetic Gas Effects on Quantum Vibrations in Microtubules – Testing the Orch OR Theory of Consciousness.” OSF. August 21. 2020  osf.io/zqnjd

Hameroff, SR., 2018. Editorial Views. “Anesthetic action and ‘quantum consciousness: A match made in olive oil.” Anesthesiology, 8(129):228-231.

Craddock TJA, Kurian P, Preto J, Sahu K, Hameroff SR, Klobukowski M, Tuszynski JA. Scientific Report, 2017, August. Anesthetic Alterations of Collective Terahertz Oscillations in Tubulin Correlate with Clinical Potency: Implications for Anesthetic Action and Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction. 

Stuart R. Hameroff, Roger Penrose, Chapter 14 "Consciousness in the Universe: An Updated Review of the "Orch OR" Theory, in Biophysics of Consciousness: A Foundational Approach, eds. Roman R. Poznanski, Jack A. Tuszynski, Todd E. Feinberg, World Scientific, 2016. 

Hameroff, S. (2016). “Change the Music: Psychotherapy and Brain Vibrations.” The Neuropsychotherapist, Vol 4(4). 31-35.  pdf  

Craddock, Travis J.A., Stuart R. Hameroff, Ahmed T. Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, & Jack A. Tuszynski. (2015). “Anesthetics act in quantum channels in brain microtubules to prevent consciousness.” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 15:6, 523-533.

Hameroff Stuart - Commentary on Stuart Kauffman's   Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life in John Hewitt's Quantum Criticality in life's proteins (update),   Phys.org - April 15, 2015.

'Darwin Versus Deepak': Which Came First, Feelings, or the Brain? 
June 2, 2015

The Guardian, Why Can't The World's Greatest Minds Solve
the Mystery of Consciousness? Oliver Burkeman, Jan 21, 2015

The Guardian's Audio Long Read 30:37

Newswise - Anesthesia Points to Deeper Level ‘Quantum Channels’  March 23, 2015 

www.quantumconsciousness.org › files  citation of Japanese Magazine for item below.

DEATH IN A QUANTUM SPACE. ハメロフ博士の. 世界一ぶっとんだ死の話. 意識と「量子もつれ」と不滅の魂. 人がその生をまっとうし、肉体が生命活動を終え ...​

Craddock, Travis John Adrian, Douglas Friesen, Jonathan Mane, Stuart Hameroff, & Jack A. Tuszynski. (2014). “The Feasibility of Coherent Energy Transfer in Microtubules.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 11(100).

Hameroff, SR., Craddock TJ, & Tuszynski JA. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness. (2014). J Integr Neurosci. 13 June (2):229-52.

Hameroff S., (2014). Comment.  L Turin et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., “Electron spin change during general anesthesia.”  Aug. 11.  

Response Hameroff to L. Turin et al., 12 August, (2014). pdf.    Ref: Hadlington, Simon. “Knock-out theory puts new spin on general anaesthesia.” ChemistryWorld Review, 12 August, (2014) Ref: citation in Luca Turin et al. (2014). “Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophilia. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.,10.1073/ pnas. 1404387111. 26 April, (2014). Ref:  Hameroff, SR. (2006). “The entwined mysteries of anesthesia and consciousness: Is there a common underlying mechanism?” Anesthesiology 105(2):400–412.

Hameroff, S., & Roger Penrose (2014). Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory.” (2014). Physics of Life Reviews, March 11(1):39-78. pdf. – PhysOrg. Discovery of quantum vibrations in ‘microtubules’ corroborates theory of consciousness. 16 January.

Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. (2014). Reply to Seven Commentaries on “Consciousness in the Universe: Review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory”. (2014). Physics of Life Reviews, 11:94–100.

Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. (2014). Reply to Criticism of the ‘Orch OR qubit’ – Orchestrated objective reduction is scientifically justified.” Physics of Life Reviews, 11(1):104-112.

Hameroff, Stuart. (2014). Consciousness, Microtubules and “Orch-OR”: A ‘Space-time’ Odyssey, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Imprint Academic. Volume 21, 3-4, 2014, 126-153. 

Hameroff, S. (2014). Quantum walks in brain microtubules-a biomolecular basis for quantum cognition? Top Cogn Sci, January; 6(1):91-7.

Discovery of quantum vibrations in ‘microtubules’ corroborates theory of consciousness,  Phys Org, 16 January, 2014.

Hameroff SR, Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness, J Integr Neurosci. 2014 Apr 13(2):229-52

Hameroff, SR.  (2013). Quantum mathematical cognition requires quantum brain biology: the “Orch OR” theory.  Behav Brain Sci, June; 36(3):287-90.

Hameroff, S.  (2013). Comment on: A Tale of Two Fields: “Dissipation of ‘dark energy’ by cortex in knowledge retrieval” by Capolupo, Freeman and Vitiello. Phys Life Rev. March; 10(1):95-6; discussion 112-6.

Hameroff S, Trakas M, Duffield C, Annabi E, Gerace MB, Boyle P, Lucas A, Amos Q, Buadu A, Badal JJ, Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) effects on mental states: a pilot study, Brain Stimul, 2013; May;6(3):409-15.

Hameroff, S., How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will. Front Integr Neurosci, (2012); 6:93,  Oct 12

Craddock T, St George M, Freedman H, Barakat K, Damaraju S, Hameroff S, Tuszynski J., Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia, PLOS One, 2012; June 25

Craddock TJ, St. George Marc, Freedman Holly, Barakat Khaled, Damaraju Sambasivarao, Hameroff Stuart, Tuszynski Jack A., Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia,PLoS One, 2012; June 25.

Hameroff S., Quantum brain biology complements neuronal assembly approaches to consciousness: Comment on "Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses" by Baars and Edelman. Phys Life Rev. 2012 Sep;9(3):303-5; discussion 306-7.

Craddock T, Tuszynski J, Hameroff S., Cytoskeletal Signaling: Is Memory Encoded in Microtubule Lattices by CaMKII Phosphorylation?  PLoS Computational Biology, 2012; March 8

Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, Chopra D, Casey N, Goldstein LE, Hameroff SR, Tanzi RE, The Zinc Dyshomeostasis Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease, PLoS One, 2012; March 23 7(3).

Orch OR – Quantum

Stuart Hameroff and Sir Roger Penrose

Stuart Hameroff’s research pursued microtubule information processing and anesthetic action. In the mid-1990s he teamed with eminent British physicist Sir Roger Penrose to develop a controversial quantum theory of consciousness (‘orchestrated objective reduction’, ‘Orch OR’) based on microtubule quantum computing. Harshly criticized initially, Orch OR is now supported by experimental results including anesthetic action. In 2017, with Sir Roger Penrose, James Tagg, Ivette Fuentes and Erik Viierre, Hameroff  co-founded the Penrose Institute, intended to support research based on the various works  of Sir  Roger (cosmology, quantum mechanics, general relativity, black holes, geometry and consciousness)


Down the Quantum Rabbit Hole
From left, Stuart Hameroff, mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose and Google researcher Hartmut Neven speak at TSC 5-10 June, 2017 Science of Consciousness conference. photos by Brad Buhr


  1. Hameroff, Stuart. Keynote Speaker, “Consciousness in the Universe.”at the conference: Consciousness in Science, Jan18-20, 2019 Gainesville, Florida, hosted by the Bhaktivedanta Institute and University of Florida at Gainesville.  video

  2. Hameroff, Stuart with Sir Roger Penrose. “Quantum computing and Orch OR.” Invited Speakers, Google Quantum AI Laboratory, Silicon Valley, CA, Dec. 17, 2018.

  3. Hameroff, Stuart. 2nd Workshop on Biological Mentality, Plenary Speaker. Center for the Physics of Living Systems, Michigan Tech University, Ann Arbor, MI, Sept. 25, 2018.

  4. Hameroff, Stuart with Sir Roger Penrose. “Biological feasibility of quantum computing and Orch OR.” Singularity University, Invited Speakers, Silicon Valley, Aug. 7, 2018.

  5. Hameroff, Stuart. Quantum Activism. Europe conference, Keynote Speaker, Bologna, Italy,  July 26, 2018.

  6. Hameroff, Stuart. Guest Lecture. “Anesthetic action links consciousness to quantum vibrations in brain microtubules.”  Cal Tech, Pasadena, CA, June 12, 2018. link

  7. Hameroff, Stuart R. “Do anesthetics prevent consciousness by dampening quantum vibrations in microtubules inside brain neurons?” Association of University Anesthesiologists (AUA), Chicago, IL, Apr. 27-28, 2018.

  8. Hameroff, Stuart. “Quantum pan-protopsychism – A scientific approach to the hard problem.” Plenary speaker, The Science of Consciousness 2018, Tucson, Arizona and “Idealism and Panpsychism” Tucson, Arizona, Apr. 6, 2018. link

  9. Hameroff, Stuart. The Enigma of Human Consciousness, Symposium, Swiss Biennial on Science, Technics+Aesthetic, Lucerne, Switzerland, Jan. 20, 2018.

  10. Hameroff, Stuart. “How anesthesia selectively blocks consciousness.” Guest Lecture, Annual Cognitive Science Conclave, University of Arizona/Arizona State University, Tucson, Arizona, Dec. 2, 2017.

  11. Hameroff, Stuart. “Does blue light deep in the brain mediate consciousness?” Keynote Speaker, Quantum and Nanosystems Computing and Applications Conference, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Systems Engineering Society, Agra, India, Nov. 21, 2017.

  12. Hameroff, Stuart. Invited Speaker, Inaugural Lecture: “Consciousness and rhythms of the universe.” International Institute for Invincible Rhythms, Shimla, India, Nov. 19, 2017.

  13. Hameroff, Stuart. Guest Lecture: “Does blue light deep in the brain mediate consciousness?” National Institute for Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India. Nov. 14, 2017.

  14. Hameroff, Stuart. Guest Speaker, “The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR theory – Current status.” Physics Seminar: University of Oxford, Oxford UK, Nov. 1, 2017.

  15. Stuart Hameroff, Guest Lecture UCL “Neuroscience: ‘Anesthesia and consciousness.” University College, London UK Oct 31, 2017.

  16. Stuart Hameroff, Guest Lecture: “Is quantum physics necessary to understand consciousness?” Sackler Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Sussex, UK, Oct. 30, 2017.

  17. Hameroff, Stuart. Plenary Lecture: “Anesthesia, C, Bohm and Penrose.” David Bohm Centennial Symposium, University of LondonOct. 28, 2017.

  18. Hameroff, Stuart. “Is consciousness guiding the universe? – Further Reaches of Consciousness Research.” The Scientific & Network presents, Beyond the Brain XII, Regents University, London UK, Oct. 28-29, 2017.

  19. Hameroff, Stuart. Invited Speaker, “Consciousness and the Anthropic Principle: Is Consciousness Driving the Universe.” Sages and Scientists, San Diego, 2017.  link

  20. Hameroff, S. “Consciousness in the Universe – The ‘Orch OR’ theory’.” Invited Speaker, Institute ‘The Infinite Consciousness Conference’, Hosted/Invited by Ervin Laszlo, July 16-17, 2017, Bagni di Lucca, Italy.

  21. Hameroff, S. “The “quantum pleasure principle- Did life evolve to feel good?” The Scientific & Medical Network, London UK, June 21, 2017.

  22. Hameroff, Stuart. The Science of Consciousness, hosted by the Center for Consciousness Studies (University of Arizona), San Diego, California, June 5-10, 2017. East-West Forum: Hameroff, S. “Is consciousness driving the universe.” June 5, 2017; Quantum Biology workshop, “Update on Orch OR theory.” Presenter, June 6, 2017, Hameroff, Stuart with  J. Craddock, J. Tuszynski, Anirban Bandyopadhyay; Hameroff, Stuart. Plenary Speaker. ‘The “Quantum pleasure principle – Did life evolve to feel good?” June 10, 2017;  ‘Origin and Evolution of Life and Consciousness’, San Diego, California, Plenary 13 -video

  23. Hameroff, Stuart. Invited Speaker, “The molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia and consciousness”. Pasteur Institute, Paris, France. Hosted/Invited by Jean-Pierre Changeux, March 8, 2017.

  24. Hameroff, Stuart. “Octave Forum on Consciousness, The ‘Living Room’.” Invited Speaker, Hosted/Invited by Julian Chang,  Hangzhou, China, Shanghai, China, Dec. 9, 2016.

  25. Hameroff, Stuart. The Science of Consciousness’  Invited Speaker, Orient Forum – campus-wide lecture, Zhejiang University, Hosted/Invited by Hengwei Li, Hangzhou, China. Dec. 8, 2016.

  26. Hameroff, Stuart. “Is quantum physics necessary to account for consciousness?” Invited Speaker, Workshop on Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics, Zhejiang University,Hosted/Invited by Hengwei Li, Hangzhou, China. Dec. 6, 2016.

  27. Hameroff, Stuart, “The Meyer-Overton quantum underground accounts for biological quantum coherence’ Forum on Quantum Biology.” Invited Speaker, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba University, Invited/Hosted by Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Tsukuba, Japan, Dec. 2, 2016.

  28. Hameroff, Stuart. “Quantum Basis of Consciousness.” Keynote Speaker, 10th Biennial European Conference of the Society for Scientific ExplorationSigtuna Foundation, Hosted/Invited by Hans Liljenstrom, Sigtuna, Sweden, Oct. 13-15, 2016.

  29. Hameroff, Stuart. “The ‘Meyer-Overton quantum underground’ accounts for biological quantum coherence.” Invited Speaker, Hosted/Invited by Anders Hedberg, Upsalla University Angstrom Lab, Symposium on Quantum Biology,  Uppsala, Sweden, Oct. 12, 2016.

  30. Hameroff, Stuart. “Is quantum physics necessary to explain consciousness?” Invited Speaker,  Hosted/Invited by Anton Kuznetsov, Moscow State University, Department of Philosophy Center for Consciousness Studies, Moscow, Russian Federation, Oct. 11, 2016.  link

  31. Yandex (‘Russian Google’) public lecture, Hosted/Invited by Tatiana Ginzburg,”The Science of Consciousness.” Oct. 11, 2016.

  32. 11th Annual Water Conference, Sofia, Bulgaria, Hosted/Invited by Gerald Pollack, S. Hameroff, “Polar and non-polar (quantum) regulation of protein dynamics.” Oct. 6-9, 2016.

  33. Stanford University, Center for the Explanation of Consciousness, Department of Philosophy ‘Radway Workshop’, Hosted/Invited by Paul Skokowski, August 26, 2016, “The ‘Orch OR’ theory of consciousness as quantum computation in brain microtubules: Status and update after 20 years.”  Fall/Summer Radway Workshops 2016, Stanford, CA  http://csli-cec.stanford.edu/events.html – Aug. 26, 2016.

  34. Hameroff, Stuart. “Is quantum physics necessary to understand consciousness?” Invited Speaker, Russian House, hosted/invited by Tatiana Ginzburg, Jenner, California, July 31, 2016. link

  35. Quantum Interactions Conference (QI 2016), July 20-22, San Francisco State University,”Is Chomsky’s structure of language encoded in microtubules?” July 20-22, 2016

  36. Google Sci-Foo Camp, Google campus, Mountain View, California Invited Speaker, July 22-24, 2016 – a) Lightning talk – ‘Good vibrations – Tuning the brain with transcranial ultrasound’ b) ‘Quantum physics and consciousness’ (session on the future of physics with Max Tegmark and Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek)

  37. The Science of Consciousness 2016, Tucson, Arizona, Plenary Lecture, Five Roads to Consciousness. Stuart Hameroff, “The Road Within: Orch OR and the Quantum Underground.” Apr. 26, 2016 – Hameroff, Stuart. Quantum Biology, Workshop, with Stuart Kauffman, Jack A. Tuszynski, Katherine T. Peil, Travis Craddock, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Dean Radin), Tucson, Arizona, Apr. 25, 2016.

  38. Hameroff, Stuart. Plenary Speaker. “The ‘Quantum Pleasure Principle’ – How Life Evolved to Feel Good.” Toward a Science of Consciousness, Helsinki, June 8-13, 2015.

  39. Ultrasound promotes neurite outgrowth-Implications for TBI – U.Raman, S.Parker, C.Duffield, S.Ghosh, *S. R. Hameroff, Nanosymposium-486. Traumatic Brain Injury: Therapeutic Strategies I Nov 18, 2014 – Neuroscience 2014 – SfN Society for Neuroscience, Nov 15-19, 2014, Washington, D.C.

  40. Sages & Scientists Symposium, August 22-24, 2014, Carlsbad, CA –Chopra Center.  link

  41. “Tuning the brain – Treating mental states through microtubule vibrations. ” June 11, 2014, Berkeley, University of California, Redwood Center for Theoretical Neuroscience.

  42. Brain Mapping Symposium, S. Hameroff, Chair; Participants: Henry Markram, Christof Koch, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, at University of Arizona, College of Medicine, sponsored by the Center for Consciousness Studies, a special session of the Toward a Science of Consciousness Tucson Conference, April 24, 2014.

  43. TSC 20th Anniversary Conference, Toward a Science of Consciousness, Tucson, Arizona, Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Arizona, April 21-26, 2014; Co-Chair,   Microtubules and Quantum Biology-Pre Conference Workshop, April 21, 2014, Roger Penrose, Jack Tuszynski, Travis Craddock, Anirban Banyopadhyay, Stuart Hameroff ;  Plenary 9, – “Quantum Approaches: Twenty Years On” with (Max Tegmark, Stuart Hameroff, Anirban Bandyopadhyay); Stuart Hameroff, Stuart Hameroff, Quantum Vibrations in Microtubules – Orch OR – 20 Years On. April 25, 2014.

  44. Hameroff, Stuart. Plenary Speaker “Death and Consciousness.” Plenary Speaker with George Mashour, Susan Blackmore, The Science of Consciousness, Tucson, Arizona, April 26, 2014.

  45. Toward a Science of Consciousness Conference, Tucson, Arizona 2014, “Quantum Approaches: 20 years on.” Selected Sessions, iTunes – (Library of CCS-iTunes) https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/2014-tsc-pl3-sir-roger-penrose/id413…

  46. 10th Symposium of the Bial Foundation  26th to 29th March 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, Casa do Médico – Porto, Behind and Beyond the Brain; Mind-Matter Interactions, Hameroff, Stuart, Keynote, ‘Consciousness, microtubules and quantum nonlocality – The ‘Orch OR’ theory’ (2014).

  47. The Brainstorm Sessions, Amsterdam, Orch OR theory, Flemish Arts Centre De Brakke Grond and UvA Amsterdam – “Microtubules and the Great Debate about Consciousness.” The Brain & Cognition Center (ABC) “Night of the Brain” Jan 2014       Amsterdam Programme.pdf   

  48. S. Hameroff, D. Chopra – “Consciousness and the ‘Anthropic principle’ – Is consciousness driving the universe?” Sages and Scientists, San Diego, California, (2013)

  49. Sir Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff, Presenters, The quantum nature of consciousness/ 2045 initiative, June 15-16, 2013  Lincoln Center, New York. 

  50. Hameroff, S. “Quantum Cognition and Brain Microtubules.” Redwood Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Jan (2013).

  51. Hameroff, S and Chopra, D. “Consciousness and the ‘Anthropic principle’ – Is consciousness driving the universe?” 2013, Sages and Scientists, San Diego, California.

  52. “A New Marriage of Brain and Computer.” S. Hameroff – Google Talks, Mountain View, CA, 2012

  53. Toward a Science of Consciousness, Tucson, PL4 – TSC12 Stuart Hameroff, “Fractal Consciousness and Orch Or.” Tucson, (2012).

  54. Bangalore, India National Institute of Advanced Studies – Quantum Mechanics, Jan 5, 2012. 

  55. QANSAS 2011, Agra India, Quantum and Nanocomputing Systems, Quantum and Nano Computing Systems Centre (QANCENTRE), Dec 1-4, (2011). 

  56. Penrose R, Hameroff S. Toward a Science of Consciousness, May 2-7, 2011, Stockholm, Sweden – Photos from Stockholm 1 – Photos from Stockholm 2.

  57. Seminar on Microtubules, Electric Ocillators in Living Cells and other highlights)  University of Arizona November 9, 2010.

  58. TEDxBrussels, Stuart Hameroff – Do we have a quantum Soul? 2010.

  59. Symposium on Microtubules, University of Arizona, Dec. 2010
    2010 CCS Special Symposium Microtubules Electric Oscillators in Living Cells-Part 1, Hameroff, Jiri Pokorny, Anirban Bandyopadhyay CCS Special Seminar, University of Arizona, 2010; Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Electronic Transport Properties of a Single Microtubule, Part 2

  60. 2010 Baseline Brain Energy; “Brain Dark Matter.” Psychiatry Grand Rounds, University of Arizona, Stuart Hameroff, Dec. 21, 2010.

  61. Hameroff, S. Invited Speaker. “Beyond Belief: Science, Reason, Religion & Survival.” The Salk Institute, in association with the Crick-Jacobs Center, La Jolla, CA Nov 5-7, 2006.

Books Authored or Edited

  1. Hameroff SR, Satsangi PS, & Sahni V. (Eds.). (2016). Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives.  New Delhi: New Age Books.

  2. Penrose, R, Hameroff SR, Stapp HP, Chopra D & Kak S.  (2011). Consciousness and the Universe. Quantum PhysicsEvolution, Brain & Mind, Journal of Cosmology.

  3. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Chalmers D. (Eds.). (1999). Toward a Science of Consciousness III: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

  4. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Scott AC. (Eds.) (1998). Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

  5. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Scott AC. (Eds.). (1996). Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

  6. Koruga DL, Hameroff SR, Withers J, Loutfy R, & Sundareshan M. (1993). C60 Fullerene–From Nanobiology to Nanotechnology. Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland.

  7. Hameroff SR. (1987). Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology. Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland.  

Book Chapters

  1. Craddock, T.J., Kurian P., Tuszynski J.A., & Hameroff S.R.  (2019)  “Quantum Processes in Neurophotonics and the Origin of the Brain’s Spatiotemporal Hierarchy.”  In R.R. Alfano & L. Shi (Eds.),  Neurophotonics and Biomedical Spectroscopy. (189-213). Elsevier, abstract

  2. Hameroff, S.  (submitted)  “Quantum state reduction and consciousness – which comes first?”  In  Stanley Klein, Chris Cochran, Acacio de Barros & Carlos Montemayor (Eds.), Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics – The Work of Henry Stapp.  Springer

  3. Hameroff, S. (2019 – in press)  “A brief history of consciousness.”  In On the Mystery of Being: Contemporary Insights on the Convergence of Science and Spirituality. Sand Anthology, New Harbinger Publications.

  4. Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. (2016). “Consciousness in the Universe: An Updated Review of the “Orch OR” Theory.”  In  R. Poznanski, J.A. Tuszynski, & T.E. Feinberg, (Eds.), The Biophysics of ConsciousnessA Foundational Approach. (517-599; Chap. 14). World Scientific.  ch-14_revised-2-3 .pdf

  5. Craddock, T., Hameroff, S., Tuszynski, J.A. (2016).  “The “Quantum Underground”: Where Life and Consciousness Originate.” In   R. Poznanski, J.A.Tuszynski, T.E. Feinberg, (Eds.), The Biophysics of Consciousness – Foundational Approaches. (Chap. 13), World Scientific.

  6. Hameroff, S.  (2016). “The Quantum Origin of Life – How the brain evolved to feel good.” In M. Tabeyranc &  F. Ayala (Eds.),  On Human Nature. Academic Press.

  7. Satsangi, P.S., Hameroff, S. & Sahni, V. (2016).  “Does Consciousness Guide the Universe?” In Consciousness: Integrating Eastern andWestern Perspectives. (351-373; Sec. 2) New Age Books.

  8. Ebner, M., & Hameroff, S. (2015) “Modeling Figure/Ground Separation with a ‘Mobile Zone’ of Laterally-Connected Spiking   Neurons,” In Irena Roterman-Konieczna, (Ed.),  Simulation in Medicine: Preclinical and Clinical Approach. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  9. Alfonseca, A, Ortega, M de la Cruz, Hameroff, S.R. & Lahoz-Beltra, R. (2015).  “A Model of Quantum-von Neumann  Hybrid Cellular Automata: Principles and simulation of quantum coherent superposition and decoherence in cytoskeletal microtubules.” In  Quantum Information and Computation. (22-36). Rinton Press. 

  10. Sanguinetti, J.L., Smith E., Allen, John J.B., Hameroff, S. (2014). “Human Brain Stimulation with Transcranial Ultrasound: Potential Applications for Mental Health.” In Bio electromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine. (355-360; 2nd edition).  CRC Press.

  11. Hameroff, S. (2014).  “Consciousness, Free Will and Quantum Brain Biology –The ‘Orch OR’ Theory.” In A. Corradini, U. Meixner, (Eds.), Quantum Physics Meets the Philosophy of Mind. (99-134).Berlin: De Gruyter. 

  12. Hameroff, S., Pylkkanen, P., & Gennaro, R. (2014).  ‘HOT to DOT’ – A ‘Deeper order thought’ theory of consciousness.” In Deepak Chopra, (Ed.),  Brain, Mind, Cosmos: The Nature of Our Existence and the Universe.  (Chapter 15; Series Book 1),  Sages and Scientists [Kindle Edition]

  13. Penrose, R., & Hameroff, S.R. (2011). “Consciousness in the Universe: Neuroscience, Quantum Space-Time Geometry and Orch OR Theory.” (Vol. 14). Journal of Cosmology.

  14. Hameroff, S.R.  (2007). “That’s Life’ – The geometry of pi electron resonance clouds.”  In  D. Abbot,  P. Davies & A.K. Pati, (Eds.). Quantum aspects of life. Biology. Imperial College Press.   

  15. Hameroff, S.R. (2004). “Consciousness, neurobiology and quantum mechanics: The case for a connection.”  In Jack Tuszynski, (Ed.). The emerging physics of consciousness. Springer.

  16. Hameroff, S. & Tuszynski, J.  (2004 June). “Quantum states in proteins and protein assemblies.” Proceedings of SPIE Conference on Fluctuationa and Noise, Canary Islands.  

  17. Hameroff, S.R., & Tuszynski,  J. (2003). “Search for quantum and classical modes of information processing in microtubules: Implications for the living state.” In Franco Musumeci & Mae-Wan Ho (Eds.), Bioenergetic organization in living systems. Singapore: World Scientific.

  18. Hameroff, S.R.  (2003). “Time, consciousness and quantum events in fundamental spacetime geometry.” In  R. Buccheri & M. Saniga (Eds.), The nature of time: Physicsgeometry and perceptionProceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop.

  19. Hameroff, S.R.  (2003). “Consciousness, Whitehead and quantum computation in the brain: Panprotopsychism meets the physics of fundamental spacetime geometry.” In M. Weber, (Ed.), Whitehead Process Network Compendium.

  20. Hameroff, S.R., & Woolf N.J.  (2002).  “Quantum consciousness: A cortical neural circuit,” In  Naoyuki Osaka, (Ed.),  Neural Basis of Consciousness.  (167-200) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  

  21. Hameroff, S. (2001).  “Biological feasibility of quantum approaches to consciousness – The Penrose-Hameroff  “Orch OR” model.”  In  Philip van Looke, (Ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness.  (1-61). John Benjamins.

  22. Hameroff, S.R. (1999). “Anesthesia.” In J. Brockman (Ed.),  Greatest inventions of the past 2000 years. (94-98). Simon and Schuster.

  23. Hameroff, S.R. (1998).  “Funda-Mental geometry: The Penrose-Hameroff “Orch OR” model of consciousness,” In  Huggett N.S.A., Mason L.J., Tod K.P., Tsou S.T., & Woodhouse N.M.J. (Eds.),  The Geometric Universe – Science, geometry and the work of Roger Penrose.  (135-160).

  24. Hameroff, S.R.  (1998). “Did Consciousness Cause the Cambrian Evolutionary Explosion?”  In Hameroff, S.R, Kaszniak A.W.,  & Scott,  A.C., (Eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates. (421-437). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  25. Hameroff, S., Scott, A. (1998).  “A Sonoran Afternoon” – Discussion on the relevance of quantum theory to consciousness.” In Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, A.W. & Scott, A.C., (Eds.), (635-643). Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  26. Hameroff, S. (1998). “More neural than thou (A reply to Patricia Churchland),”  In  Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, A.W. & Scott, A.C., (Eds.), (197-213). Toward a Science of Consciousness II – The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  27. Hameroff, S. (1997).  “Consciousness Studies: An overview.” In Taddei-Ferretti,  C. , Musio, C., (Eds.), (3-13).  Neuronal and psychological aspects of consciousness. Series on Biophysics and Biocybernetics. (Vol. 8) – Biocybernetics. World Scientific.

  28. Hameroff, S. (1997). “Quantum computing in microtubules: The Penrose-Hameroff  Orch OR Model,” In Taddei-Ferretti, C., Musio, C., (Eds.), (479-506).   Neuronal and psychological aspects of consciousness, Series on Biophysics and Biocybernetics Vol 8 – Biocybernetics. World Scientific.

  29. Hameroff, S.R. (1997).  “Quantum computing in microtubules: an intra-neural correlate of consciousness?”  In Cognitive Studies: Bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society. 4(3): 67-92).

  30. Boswell, M.V., Hameroff, S.R., (1996).  “Theoretical mechanisms of general anesthesia,” In  VJ Collins (Ed.),  Principles of Anesthesiology, 3rd Edition, Volume 3: The Physiologic and Pharmacologic Basis of Anesthesia, Philadelphia:  Lea and Feiberger.  

  31. Hameroff, S.R. (1996).  “Cytoplasmic Gel States and Ordered Water: Possible Roles in Biological Quantum Coherence,” Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, TX. 

  32. Hameroff, S., Penrose, R., (1996).  “Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness,” In  S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak &  A. Scott., (Eds.), (507-540). Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A Model For Consciousness 1996.pdf

  33. Louria, D., Hameroff, S., (1996). “Computer simulation of anesthetic binding in protein hydrophobic pockets,” In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak &  A. Scott., (Eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  34. Hameroff, S., Penrose, R., (1996). “Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections,”  In D. Chalmers &  J. Shear (Eds.),   Explaining consciousness – the “hard problem” of conscious experience.

  35. Hameroff, S., Penrose, R., (1995).  “Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness?” In  J. King and K. Pribram (Eds.), (243-274). Scales in Conscious Experience, Is the brain too important to be left to specialists to study?  Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  36. Hameroff, S.R., Polson, J.S., Watt, R.C.  (1994). “Monitoring Anesthetic Depth,” In  C. Blitt, Churchill Livingstone (Eds.), Monitoring in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine- 3rd ed. (491-507). 

  37. Hameroff, S., Karampurwala, H., & Rasmussen, S., (Eds.), (1990). June; 17-21; 3:715-720).  “Adaptive behavior in sub-neural microtubule automata.” IJCNN International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE Publisher.

  38. Hameroff, S., Rasmussen, S., & Mansson, B. (1988).  “Molecular automata in microtubules: basic computational logic of the living state,” In  C. Langton, (Ed.),  (521-553). Artificial Life: SFI Studies in the Science of Complexity. New York: Addison-Wesley.

  39. Pribram Karl, Hameroff SR, Koruga, Djuro. “Sub-Neural Mechanisms,” TSC Consciousness I, Tucson, Arizona, April 12-17, 1994.


Anesthesiology, Anesthesia and Analgesia; Physica A; Medical Hypotheses; Bioessays; Trends in Cognitive Sciences (‘TICS’); Journal of Consciousness Studies; Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology; Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems; Proceedings A Royal Society.

Editorial Boards

BioSystems; Journal of Consciousness Studies (Assoc. Editor)

Professional Memberships

American Society of Anesthesiologists; Association of University Anesthesiologists; Society for Neuroscience; Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness

Press – Media

  1. ‘Science on Screen’ Presenter, ‘Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind’. Loft Cinema, March 20, 2019. Tucson, AZ.

  2. Markets Business Insider, Global Zen Consciousness and Future of AI Robotics,  Interview with Stuart Hameroff, Guest Speaker The inaugural Global Zen Consciousness Conference (GZC) documentary production organized by Shaolin Chan Foundation (SCF) produced by Shaolin Institute (IS) and DeRu Media (DRM) held in Atlanta, GA. Oct 22, 2018

  3. The Wright Show, Host: Robert Wright, Quantum Consciousness, Stuart Hameroff, video interview (Bloggingheads.tv) June 25, 2018.

  4. Volk, Steve. Down the Quantum Rabbit Hole, Interview with Stuart Hameroff, Discover, Feb. 22, 2018.  

  5. Ratner, Paul. Why a “genius” scientist thinks our consciousness originates at the quantum level,  Interview with Stuart Hameroff, Big Think, Jan. 15, 2018.

  6. Hameroff S., Darwin Versus Deepak, Which Came First, Feelings or the Brain? Huff Post, June 2, 2015 updated Dec. 6, 2017.

  7. Brown, William. Confirmation of Quantum Resonance in Brain Microtubules, Resonance Science Foundation, feature posted on February 6.

  8. Newswise – Consciousness Depends on Tubulin Vibrations Inside Neurons Anesthesia Study Suggests in Nature, Aug 29 2017.

  9. East West, The Middle West, Dialogue with the Dalai Lama, A recent conversation with Russian scientists and HHDL, New Delhi, India. Aug. 7-8, 2017.

  10. Mishlove, Jeffrey.New Thinking Allowed, Interview with Stuart Hameroff, ‘The Hard Problem of Consciousness’ July 8, 2017. Consciousness and the Brain – 6-part series.

  11. Ball, Philip. The Strange Link Between the Human Mind and Physics, Interview with Stuart Hameroff, BBC, Feb.16, 2017.

  12. Chopra, D. Is Your Brain Really a Computer or a Quantum Orchestra, Contributor Stuart Hameroff, HuffPost, July 8, 2016.

  13. More Rational Than Thou, D Chopra on Orch OR – An Open Letter to Richard Dawkins and Michael Shermer, HuffPost, June 5, 2016.

  14. Newswise – Anesthesia Points to Deeper Level ‘Quantum Channels’ March 23, 2015. 

  15. Why Can’t The World’s Greatest Minds Solve the Mystery of Consciousness? by Oliver Burkeman, The Guardian, January 21, 2015;The Guardian Audio – Long Read 30:37

  16. GS Mudur, Deep inside cells, a clue to the mind -Indian physicists have discovered what they say are possible
    signatures of a hidden information processing network in all living cells, predicted by other scientists decades ago as a key to deciphering biological mysteries including consciousness. The Telegraph, telegraphindia.com March 4, 2015.

  17. Anesthesia Points to Deeper Level ‘Quantum Channels’ as Origins of Consciousness Electron resonance pervades the brain, March 2015 – Newswise.

  18. Death in A Quantum Space,Japan Wired Magazine, Interview with Stuart Hameroff, 2015; Japan Wired Magazine – 2014 Death in A Quantum Space.pdf   

  19. Is your Brain really a Computer or Is It a Quantum Orchestra, D. Chopra, HuffPost, July 9, 2015.

  20. Quantum Criticality in life’s proteins (update) John Hewitt, April 15, 2015, Phys.org- Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life in John Hewitt’s Quantum Criticality in life’s proteins (update).

  21. Stuart Hameroff Quantum criticality in living systems – Commentary on Stuart Kauffman, Gabor Vattay and colleagues April 15, 2015 by John Hewitt, Phys.org

  22. New Thinking Allowed, interview with Jeffrey Mishlove and Stuart Hameroff, The Orch OR Theory of Consciousness and its Critics with Stuart Hameroff, 2015.

  23. New Thinking Allowed, interviews with Jeffrey Mishlove and Stuart Hameroff, 2014.
    Consciousness and the Brain, Part 1 The Magic of Microtubules
    Consciousness and the Brain, Part 2: The Mystery of Anesthesia
    Consciousness and the Brain, Part 3: Quantum Consciousness
    Consciousness and the Brain, Part 4: The Orchestra of the Brain

  24. Hadington, Simon. Electron Theft, Not Drug Effects, May Be How Anesthesia Knocks People Out, Interview with Stuart Hameroff, Scientific American, Aug 13, 2014.

  25. Palmer, Roxanne. World Science Festival – WSF, Anesthesia’s Electric Effects?  Interview with S. Hameroff, Aug 11, 2014.

  26. Arizona Public Media,  Host, Anna Augustowska, Interview with Stuart Hameroff. April 22, 2014.

  27. Q&A with Sir Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff,  Elsevier Connect, Video  26:00, On How Quantum Vibrations in “Microtubules” Corroborates the Theory of Consciousness. Amsterdam, Feb 20, 2014

  28. Stuart Hameroff, Roger Penrose, February 19, 2014 – Elsevier. Journals, Interview with Nobel prize candidate Sir Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff, ElsevierConnect, February 19, 2014, Amsterdam.

  29. Elsevier, Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in “Microtubules” Inside Brain Neurons Corroborates Controversial 20-Year-Old Theory of Consciousness, Jan 16,  2014, Amsterdam.

  30. Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in ‘Microtubules’ Inside Brain Neurons Supports Controversial Theory of Consciousness, Science Daily, Jan 16, 2014. A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness published in Physics of Life Reviews claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons.

  31. Controversial Theory of Consciousness Revisited: Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in ‘Microtubules’ Inside Brain Neurons, Science World Report, Jan 16, 2014

  32. Elsevier. Stuart Hameroff on Singularity 1 on 1: Consciousness is Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in “Microtubules” Inside Brain Neurons – Corroborates Controversial 20-Year-Old Theory of Consciousness, Jan 16, 2014, Amsterdam.

  33. Penrose, Bandyopadhyay & Hameroff, Lezing: Microtubuli & het grote debat over het bewustzijn

  34. Science Friday, Roger Penrose: Cosmic Inflation Is ‘Fantasy’,
    Apr 4, 2014.  
    Science Friday airs on nearly 400 public radio stations throughout the United States.

34. Robert Lawrence Kuhn, Closer to Truth, PBS, Interview Series with Stuart Hameroff, April 2014, TV Episodes

press continued

35. Newswise. Grand Theories to Clash at Tucson Conference – Collision Course, in the Science of Consciousness. 2014. 

36. Why Anesthesia Is One of the Greatest Medical Mysteries of Our Time, Daily Explainer/io9.com, 6/19/2014.

37. Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in “Microtubules” inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness, September 23, 2014 – A review and update of the Physics of Life Reviews, Earth Changes Media.  

38. Consciousness – A conversation with Deepak Chopra and Stuart Hameroff, In Lectures and Conversations, September 3, 2014

39. Collision Course’ in the Science of Consciousness: Grand Theories to Clash at Tucson Conference, Huffington Post, Mar 18, 2014.

40. Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in ‘Microtubules’ Inside Brain Neurons Supports Controversial Theory of Consciousness, Science Daily, Jan 16, 2014.  

41. Closer to Truth, host Robert Kuhn; Stuart Hameroff on Panpsychism, 2013, NPR.

42. Probing the Unknowable Mysteries of the Brain, Marcelo Gleiser, NPR, Dec. 4, 2013 reporting from the Agra India TSC Conference.

43. Huffington Post, Letter to the TED-itors, Apr 18, 2013.

44. MP3s in your genes? Is Human DNA the same as computer code? Huffington Post Live HPL Feb 6, 2013 Panel hosted by Josh Zepps. Video

45. Consciousness: A conversation with Deepak Chopra and Stuart Hameroff, 2013, Is Human DNA the same as computer code? Huffington Post Live, Feb 6, 2013.

46. Can Images Unlock the Mystery of a Healing Brain?  MedPage Today, Nancy Walsh, Feb 1, 2013.

47. Global Future 2045, S. Hameroff, Microtubules & Quantum Consciousness, June 15-16, 2012.

48. Host, Nikola Danaylov, Feature Interview with Stuart Hameroff on Singularity 1 on 1: Consciousness is More Than Computation! 2012.

49. Stuart Hameroff’s Quantum Theory of Consciousness – Transpersonal Matters, 2012.

50. Post Anesthesia Dementia, like Alzheimer’s, Looks Micro-‘Tubular’, Science Daily, June 27, 2012.

51. Scientists claim brain memory code cracked, Science Daily, March 9, 2012.

52. TEDx Tucson, S. Hameroff, The Future of Consciousness, Tucson, 2012.

53. Doctor Asks: What Is Consciousness? Arizona Public Media/ Arizona Illustrated, PBS, NPR, by Luis Carrion, April 10, 2012.

54. Turning consciousness upside down: Magic mushrooms and the fractal brain hierarchy – Commentary on Carhart-Harris et al (2012) Neural correlates of the psychedelic…

55. Consciousness After Death Possible?, S. Hameroff, M. Freeman Host, 2012.

56. ‘Is Life After Death Possible?’  Through the Wormhole, Discovery Science Channel, hosted by Morgan Freeman, interview with Stuart Hameroff -season 2 episode 1, 2011.

57. Through the Wormhole, Discovery Science Channel, hosted by Morgan Freeman.

58. Segment on Life After Death 2011, interview with Stuart Hameroff, Season 2, Episode 1, Part 2 first aired: June 8, 2011 – features interviews and scenes filmed at University Medical Center, Tucson – Morgan Freeman, host and narrator highlights views of leading researchers and skeptics into the questions of near-death experiences, consciousness, quantum effects on biological research and the science behind what we know today.  YouTube clip/S. Hameroff

59. Through the Wormhole, Season 2 Episode 1, TTW, part 2, host Morgan Freeman, Segment: Is there Life after Death? interview with Stuart Hameroff.

60. Miracle Detectives, OWN, February 2011, The Science of Consciousness.

61. Consciousness and the Universe; radio host, Eldon Taylor, interview with Stuart Hameroff.

62. Hameroff S, V.S. Ramachandran. Beyond Belief: Science, Reason, Religion & Survival (TSN) The Science Network) 2006, Session 4. Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA from November 5-7, 2006.

63. Being the skunk at an atheist convention, S. Hameroff

64. What the Bleep Do We Know!?   Discovering the Endless Possibilities for Altering Your Everyday Reality, 20th Century Fox, Samuel Goldwyn Films, 2004  What the Bleep Do We Know!? | Feature Film) 

65. Closer to Truth: Science Meaning and the Future, Season 1, 2003 12:12  “Is Consciousness Definable, J Bogen, C  Koch, L Brothers, S  Hameroff.

66. The Science of Consciousness interview with Stuart Hameroff, Quantum Physics and Consciousness, Gregory Alsbury, 2003, Albsbury Films 

67. Simulation by BBC TV in consultation with Stuart Hameroff for show “ESP” produced by Peter Getzels and Harriet Gordon.  Original artwork by Dave Cantrell.Download the video 

BBC TV Simulation of Orch OR Model of Consciousness 

BBC SIMULATION-  Link to CCS iTunes Page 


Additional – Sir Roger Penrose

Hameroff S., Penrose R.  Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory. Phys Life Rev, Mar 11(1):39-78. (2014). pdf. – PhysOrg. Discovery of quantum vibrations in ‘microtubules’ corroborates theory of consciousness. 16 Jan 2014.

Penrose, R. Introduction: science at the turn of the millennium, Roger Penrose, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A: 1999 357 3197-3203; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.1999.0489. Published 1 Dec. 1999.

Penrose R. Quantum computation entanglement and state reduction Phil Trans R Soc Lond 1998.pdf

Hameroff S, Penrose, R. Orchestrated Objective Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules. In: Toward a Science of Consciousness – The First Tucson Discussions and Debates, Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, A.W. and Scott, A.C., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1996. 507-540.

Penrose R, Shadows of the Mind, 1994. Oxford University Press. 1994.

Penrose R, The Emperor’s New Mind. Oxford University Press. 1989.

R. Penrose, "Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 57 (1965).

R. Penrose, "Asymptotic Properties of Fields and Space-Times," Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 66 (1963).